Poly-arginine peptide-18 (R18) is neuroprotective in different rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke models. In this study, we examined whether R18 treatment could reduce ischemic brain injury and improve functional outcome in a nonhuman primate (NHP) stroke model. A stroke was induced in male cynomolgus macaques by MCAO distal to the orbitofrontal branch of the MCA through a right pterional craniotomy, using a 5-mm titanium aneurysm clip for 90 min. R18 (1000 nmol/kg) or saline vehicle was administered intravenously 60 min after the onset of MCAO. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; perfusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, or T2-weighted imaging) of the brain was performed 15 min, 24 h, and 28 days post-MCAO, and neurological outcome was assessed using the NHP stroke scale (NHPSS). Experimental endpoint was 28 days post-MCAO, treatments were randomized, and all procedures were performed blinded to treatment status. R18 treatment reduced infarct lesion volume by up to 65.2% and 69.7% at 24 h and 28 days poststroke, respectively. Based on NHPSS scores, R18-treated animals displayed reduced functional deficits. This study confirms the effectiveness of R18 in reducing the severity of ischemic brain injury and improving functional outcomes after stroke in a NHP model, and provides further support for its clinical development as a stroke neuroprotective therapeutic.