There is considerable public and scientific debate for and against genetically modified (GM) crops. One of the first GM crops, Brassica napus (oilseed rape or canola) is now widely grown in North America, with proposed commercial release into Australia and Europe. Among concerns of opponents to these crops are claims that pollen movement will cause unacceptable levels of gene flow from GM to non-GM crops or to related weedy species, resulting in genetic pollution of the environment. Therefore, quantifying pollen-mediated gene flow is vital for assessing the environmental impact of GM crops. This study quantifies at a landscape level the gene flow that occurs from herbicide-resistant canola crops to nearby crops not containing herbicide resistance genes.
Rieger, M. A., Lamond, K., Preston, C., Powles, S., & Roush, R. T. (2002). Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science, 296, 2386-2388. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1071682