Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Are Protective Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Infants: A Population-Based Observational Study

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Abstract

Background Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduced the risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to assess the real-world effectiveness of PCV on RSV-hospitalizations among Western Australian infants. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study of births during 2000-2012, using probabilistically linked individual-level immunization, hospitalization, respiratory microbiology testing, and perinatal data. We performed Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying exposure (receipt of infant PCV doses) against the first RSV-confirmed hospitalization 0-12 months adjusted for perinatal and sociodemographic factors. Results From 360 994 children, 3-dose PCV coverage in Aboriginal infants ranged from 29% to 51% in 2001-2004 when PCV was funded for Aboriginal children only. Following universal funding in 2005, coverage increased to 85% for Aboriginal and 73% for non-Aboriginal infants. RSV-hospitalization rates were highest in young infants aged 0-5 months (22.5/1000 child-years) and >2 times higher in Aboriginal infants than in non-Aboriginal infants. Receipt of >= 3 PCV doses in the universal funded period was associated with a 30% reduction in RSV-hospitalization in Aboriginal infants (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR 0.70 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.46-1.06]) and 21% reduction in non-Aboriginal infants (aHR 0.79 [95% CI 0.63-0.99]) compared with unvaccinated infants. Conclusions Prior to the introduction of RSV vaccines, our study suggests that universal childhood PCV vaccination may result in a reduction in severe RSV infections in children and may be important for countries that are yet to consider PCV programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofad199
Number of pages9
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2023

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