Progressive degeneration and dysfunction of the nervous system because of oxidative stress, aggregations of misfolded proteins, and neuroinflammation are the key pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder driven by uncontrolled extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the amyloid plaques and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol with noticeable neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that can cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is widely studied for the alleviation of inflammatory and neurological disorders. However, the clinical application of curcumin is limited due to its low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. Recently, nano-based curcumin delivery systems are developed to overcome these limitations effectively. This review article discusses the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in Alzheimer’s disease.