OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in plasma from healthy controls and different types of periodontitis patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ was determined in healthy controls (n = 18) and patients with chronic (n = 19) and aggressive periodontitis (n = 19) using a flow cytometric multiplex immunoassay. Means and standard deviations were calculated and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman rho coefficient was used to correlate cytokines in the studied groups.
RESULTS: Although there was no significant difference in the concentration of cytokines between groups, there was a tendency to lower levels of IL-5 and IL-10 in the aggressive periodontitis group. Stronger correlations were observed between IL-2/IL-4 and IL-2/IL-10 in healthy controls (0.938 and 0.669, respectively) compared with chronic (0.746 and 0.532) and aggressive periodontitis groups (0.395 and 0.266). When compared to healthy (0.812) and chronic periodontitis (0.845) groups, the correlation of IL-4/IL-5 was weaker in the aggressive group (0.459).
CONCLUSION: No difference between systemic levels of Th1/Th2 was observed. In aggressive periodontitis patients, nevertheless, a trend towards low levels of Th2 cytokines could suggest a contribution to the development of such an exacerbated manifestation of this disease.