Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women

A. Devine, S.S. Dhaliwal, Ian Dick, J. Bollerslev, Richard Prince

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A population-based study of 1363 older women showed that the 24% who achieved high physical activity and dietary calcium intakes had a 5.1% higher hip BMD than those who did not, supporting the concept that lifestyle factors play an important role in the maintenance of lower extremity bone mass in older women. Introduction: Although there is general agreement that increased dietary calcium consumption and exercise can slow bone loss in older women, the amount required to have this effect in an older population remains uncertain. This study was devised to examine the effects of calcium consumption (CC) and physical activity (PA) (lifestyle management) on bone mass in an older female population. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, a population-based sample of older women (mean age, 75 ± 3 years) had hip and heel bone mass measured using DXA (Hologic 4500A; n = 1076) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Lunar Achilles; n = 1363), respectively. CC and PA were measured by a validated habitual food frequency and activity questionnaire, respectively. Dose-response effects of PA and CC on bone mass were examined using ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Division of the PA and CC into tertiles best described the dose-response effects. After adjustment for CC, age, weight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, high PA compared with medium or low PA was associated with higher hip BMD and heel QUS (total hip BMD, 3.1%; p <0.001; QUS stiffness, 2.7%; p = 0.002). After adjustment for PA and covariates, high or medium CC compared with low CC was associated with higher total hip BMD (1.8%; p = 0.027), with no effect at the QUS heel site. PA and CC were dichotomized at the cut-points for effects on BMD. The combination of high PA and CC, achieved by 24% of the population, was associated with a total hip BMD that was 5.1% higher (34% of SD) than those individuals in the low PA and CC group. Stiffness was 3.6% (23% of SD) higher in the high PA and CC group than in the low PA and CC group. If the whole population undertook and achieved a high PA and high CC lifestyle, the population risk of hip fractures may be expected to be reduced by about 17% in this age group as a result of beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1634-1639
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume19
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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Lower Extremity
Exercise
Calcium
Bone and Bones
Hip
Population
Life Style
Dietary Calcium
Heel
Bones of Lower Extremity
Pelvic Bones
Musculoskeletal System
Calcaneus
Hip Fractures
Alcohol Drinking
Analysis of Variance
Age Groups
Cross-Sectional Studies
Smoking
Maintenance

Cite this

@article{14ca2f49999742429d933aaf44e2fff5,
title = "Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women",
abstract = "A population-based study of 1363 older women showed that the 24{\%} who achieved high physical activity and dietary calcium intakes had a 5.1{\%} higher hip BMD than those who did not, supporting the concept that lifestyle factors play an important role in the maintenance of lower extremity bone mass in older women. Introduction: Although there is general agreement that increased dietary calcium consumption and exercise can slow bone loss in older women, the amount required to have this effect in an older population remains uncertain. This study was devised to examine the effects of calcium consumption (CC) and physical activity (PA) (lifestyle management) on bone mass in an older female population. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, a population-based sample of older women (mean age, 75 ± 3 years) had hip and heel bone mass measured using DXA (Hologic 4500A; n = 1076) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Lunar Achilles; n = 1363), respectively. CC and PA were measured by a validated habitual food frequency and activity questionnaire, respectively. Dose-response effects of PA and CC on bone mass were examined using ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Division of the PA and CC into tertiles best described the dose-response effects. After adjustment for CC, age, weight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, high PA compared with medium or low PA was associated with higher hip BMD and heel QUS (total hip BMD, 3.1{\%}; p <0.001; QUS stiffness, 2.7{\%}; p = 0.002). After adjustment for PA and covariates, high or medium CC compared with low CC was associated with higher total hip BMD (1.8{\%}; p = 0.027), with no effect at the QUS heel site. PA and CC were dichotomized at the cut-points for effects on BMD. The combination of high PA and CC, achieved by 24{\%} of the population, was associated with a total hip BMD that was 5.1{\%} higher (34{\%} of SD) than those individuals in the low PA and CC group. Stiffness was 3.6{\%} (23{\%} of SD) higher in the high PA and CC group than in the low PA and CC group. If the whole population undertook and achieved a high PA and high CC lifestyle, the population risk of hip fractures may be expected to be reduced by about 17{\%} in this age group as a result of beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system.",
author = "A. Devine and S.S. Dhaliwal and Ian Dick and J. Bollerslev and Richard Prince",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1359/JBMR.040804",
language = "English",
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journal = "Journal of Bone & Mineral Research",
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Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women. / Devine, A.; Dhaliwal, S.S.; Dick, Ian; Bollerslev, J.; Prince, Richard.

In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 19, No. 10, 2004, p. 1634-1639.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women

AU - Devine, A.

AU - Dhaliwal, S.S.

AU - Dick, Ian

AU - Bollerslev, J.

AU - Prince, Richard

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - A population-based study of 1363 older women showed that the 24% who achieved high physical activity and dietary calcium intakes had a 5.1% higher hip BMD than those who did not, supporting the concept that lifestyle factors play an important role in the maintenance of lower extremity bone mass in older women. Introduction: Although there is general agreement that increased dietary calcium consumption and exercise can slow bone loss in older women, the amount required to have this effect in an older population remains uncertain. This study was devised to examine the effects of calcium consumption (CC) and physical activity (PA) (lifestyle management) on bone mass in an older female population. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, a population-based sample of older women (mean age, 75 ± 3 years) had hip and heel bone mass measured using DXA (Hologic 4500A; n = 1076) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Lunar Achilles; n = 1363), respectively. CC and PA were measured by a validated habitual food frequency and activity questionnaire, respectively. Dose-response effects of PA and CC on bone mass were examined using ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Division of the PA and CC into tertiles best described the dose-response effects. After adjustment for CC, age, weight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, high PA compared with medium or low PA was associated with higher hip BMD and heel QUS (total hip BMD, 3.1%; p <0.001; QUS stiffness, 2.7%; p = 0.002). After adjustment for PA and covariates, high or medium CC compared with low CC was associated with higher total hip BMD (1.8%; p = 0.027), with no effect at the QUS heel site. PA and CC were dichotomized at the cut-points for effects on BMD. The combination of high PA and CC, achieved by 24% of the population, was associated with a total hip BMD that was 5.1% higher (34% of SD) than those individuals in the low PA and CC group. Stiffness was 3.6% (23% of SD) higher in the high PA and CC group than in the low PA and CC group. If the whole population undertook and achieved a high PA and high CC lifestyle, the population risk of hip fractures may be expected to be reduced by about 17% in this age group as a result of beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system.

AB - A population-based study of 1363 older women showed that the 24% who achieved high physical activity and dietary calcium intakes had a 5.1% higher hip BMD than those who did not, supporting the concept that lifestyle factors play an important role in the maintenance of lower extremity bone mass in older women. Introduction: Although there is general agreement that increased dietary calcium consumption and exercise can slow bone loss in older women, the amount required to have this effect in an older population remains uncertain. This study was devised to examine the effects of calcium consumption (CC) and physical activity (PA) (lifestyle management) on bone mass in an older female population. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, a population-based sample of older women (mean age, 75 ± 3 years) had hip and heel bone mass measured using DXA (Hologic 4500A; n = 1076) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Lunar Achilles; n = 1363), respectively. CC and PA were measured by a validated habitual food frequency and activity questionnaire, respectively. Dose-response effects of PA and CC on bone mass were examined using ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Division of the PA and CC into tertiles best described the dose-response effects. After adjustment for CC, age, weight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, high PA compared with medium or low PA was associated with higher hip BMD and heel QUS (total hip BMD, 3.1%; p <0.001; QUS stiffness, 2.7%; p = 0.002). After adjustment for PA and covariates, high or medium CC compared with low CC was associated with higher total hip BMD (1.8%; p = 0.027), with no effect at the QUS heel site. PA and CC were dichotomized at the cut-points for effects on BMD. The combination of high PA and CC, achieved by 24% of the population, was associated with a total hip BMD that was 5.1% higher (34% of SD) than those individuals in the low PA and CC group. Stiffness was 3.6% (23% of SD) higher in the high PA and CC group than in the low PA and CC group. If the whole population undertook and achieved a high PA and high CC lifestyle, the population risk of hip fractures may be expected to be reduced by about 17% in this age group as a result of beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system.

U2 - 10.1359/JBMR.040804

DO - 10.1359/JBMR.040804

M3 - Article

VL - 19

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EP - 1639

JO - Journal of Bone & Mineral Research

JF - Journal of Bone & Mineral Research

SN - 0884-0431

IS - 10

ER -