© 2015 The Linnean Society of London. The Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) of south-western Australia are terrestrial islands characterized by high species richness and endemism. Regional endemics occur across multiple formations without inhabiting the intervening landscape matrix. We investigated whether the occurrence on BIF terrestrial islands has led to genetic differentiation among the eight known populations of the regional endemic, Banksia arborea. Genetic structure was assessed using three chloroplast DNA sequence markers and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci. Phylogenetic relationships were assessed with statistical parsimony and Bayesian methods. Dates of haplotype divergence were estimated using the time to most recent common ancestor of B.arborea and Banksia purdieana, as well as a conservative angiosperm chloroplast (cp)DNA mutation rate. Population genetic diversity and structure was assessed amongst and within populations by genotyping 24 geographically clustered individuals from each BIF and three subpopulations within the Die Hardy Range BIF. Indirect gene flow estimates were determined using a method based on the frequency of private alleles. Banksia arborea showed low genetic diversity in (cp)DNA and a complex structural pattern, with genetic differentiation of some BIF populations and an absence of differentiation amongst others, reflecting either retention of ancestral polymorphism across northern BIF populations or more recent connectivity of these populations. There was little evidence of pollen dispersal both between BIFs and within the large BIF known as Die Hardy Range.