Photon counting imaging with an electron-bombarded pixel image sensor

Liisa M. Hirvonen, Klaus Suhling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Electron-bombarded pixel image sensors, where a single photoelectron is accelerated directly into a CCD or CMOS sensor, allow wide-field imaging at extremely low light levels as they are sensitive enough to detect single photons. This technology allows the detection of up to hundreds or thousands of photon events per frame, depending on the sensor size, and photon event centroiding can be employed to recover resolution lost in the detection process. Unlike photon events from electron-multiplying sensors, the photon events from electron-bombarded sensors have a narrow, acceleration-voltage-dependent pulse height distribution. Thus a gain voltage sweep during exposure in an electron-bombarded sensor could allow photon arrival time determination from the pulse height with sub-frame exposure time resolution. We give a brief overview of our work with electron-bombarded pixel image sensor technology and recent developments in this field for single photon counting imaging, and examples of some applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number617
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


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