Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play a critical role in the reprocessing of stellar radiation and balancing the heating and cooling processes in the interstellar medium but appear to be destroyed in H ii regions. However, the mechanisms driving their destruction are still not completely understood. Using PHANGS-JWST and PHANGS-MUSE observations, we investigate how the PAH fraction changes in about 1500 H ii regions across four nearby star-forming galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 1365, NGC 7496, and IC 5332). We find a strong anticorrelation between the PAH fraction and the ionization parameter (the ratio between the ionizing photon flux and the hydrogen density) of H ii regions. This relation becomes steeper for more luminous H ii regions. The metallicity of H ii regions has only a minor impact on these results in our galaxy sample. We find that the PAH fraction decreases with the Hα equivalent width—a proxy for the age of the H ii regions—although this trend is much weaker than the one identified using the ionization parameter. Our results are consistent with a scenario where hydrogen-ionizing UV radiation is the dominant source of PAH destruction in star-forming regions.