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Monocytes/macrophages differentiating from bone marrow (BM) cells pulsed for 2 hours at 37°C with a stabilized derivative of prostaglandin E2, 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), migrated less efficiently toward a chemoattractant than monocytes/macrophages differentiated from BM cells pulsed with vehicle. To confirm that the effect on BM cells was long lasting and to replicate human BM transplantation, chimeric mice were established with donor BM cells pulsed for 2 hours with dmPGE2 before injection into marrow-ablated congenic recipient mice. After 12 weeks, when high levels (90%) of engraftment were obtained, regenerated BM-derived monocytes/macrophages differentiating in vitro or in vivo migrated inefficiently toward the chemokines colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or thioglycollate, respectively. Our results reveal long-lasting changes to progenitor cells of monocytes/macrophages by a 2-hour dmPGE2 pulse that, in turn, limits the migration of their daughter cells to chemoattractants and inflammatory mediators.
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