Personal monitoring using passive samplers was conducted in Perth, Western Australia, to determine the concentrations of benzene to which residents were exposed during their daily activities. An additional aim of the study was to assess the contribution of different microenvironments to non-industrial exposure, and the extent to which lifestyle and behaviour influence personal exposure. Fifty participants were recruited and wore passive samplers over 24-h periods for 5 consecutive days (including weekends) in summer (November-March) and winter (June-September). The study commenced in June 2001 and was completed in April 2002. The mean benzene exposure of the participants in summer was 1.76 and 1.98 mu g m(-3) in winter. Statistical analysis using a generalized linear mixed model revealed that refuelling and commuting were the most significant contributors to non-industrial exposure to benzene in summer and winter for Perth residents. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.