A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to transport permanganate through a low permeability media using electrokinetics. During the undertaking of the laboratory experiments it was realised that a critical component of successful permanganate transport was the isolation of H+ and OH- electromigration. Both H+ and OH- were generated, and underwent subsequent electromigration, as a result of applying electrokinetics. The effect of H+ and OH- electromigration was to stall the permanganate electromigration front. To undertake the laboratory experiments, an electrokinetic apparatus was designed, manufactured and implemented. H+ and OH- electromigration were used to determine the adequacy of the designed apparatus for pH isolation. A series of ‗pH-isolated‘ and ‗normal‘ mode (non pH isolated) experiments were undertaken and compared in terms of H+ and OH- electromigration. It was found that pH isolation was achieved when a combination of separating the electrode reservoirs from the inner reservoirs using porous media as well as the purging of the electrode reservoirs with a pH neutral fluid was used. The electromigration retardation factor of H+ and OH- was calculated for the porous media using the observed pH breakthrough times. The retardation factor for H+ was also calculated by considering mass flux data. The retardation factors for H+ and OH- were found to be 28.3 and 95, respectively, when using the breakthrough time. The retardation factor for H+ was calculated to be 36.7 using the mass flux data. The electrokinetic apparatus was then utilised for permanganate electromigration through low permeability porous media.
|Unpublished - 2010