Although attempts have been made to show that pediatric interventional radiology adds value in children’s hospitals, none has been particularly persuasive. An analysis of individual procedures would seem to be the most scientific approach, but there are numerous problems, including the effects that different health care systems have on clinical practice and the difficulty of generalizing the results of a single-center study to other hospitals, even within the same type of health care system. It is unsurprising that there are no published randomized controlled trials comparing both the costs and outcomes of specific pediatric interventional radiology procedures with surgical alternatives, and in fact these may not be feasible. There is only anecdotal evidence of the value of pediatric interventional radiology in multidisciplinary teams in children’s hospitals. Currently, the best justification may be the counterfactual: demonstrating what can go wrong if pediatric interventional radiology expertise is not available.