Purpose: To investigate whether parental smoking around the time of pregnancy or maternal consumption of beverages (alcohol, coffee, or tea) during pregnancy were associated with the risk of CBT. Methods: We pooled data from two French national population-based case–control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003–2004 and 2010–2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender, were interviewed through telephone, which included questions about prenatal parental smoking and maternal consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and study of origin. Results: No association was seen between CBT and the mother smoking or drinking alcohol, coffee, or tea during the index pregnancy. The OR between CBT and paternal smoking in the year before birth (as reported by the mother) was 1.25 (95% CI 1.03, 1.52) with an OR of 1.09 (0.99, 1.19) for every 10 cigarettes per day (CPD) smoked. The association between paternal smoking and CBT appeared to be stronger in children diagnosed before the age of five years (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14, 2.02) and for astrocytoma (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.26, 2.74). Conclusion: We found some evidence of a weak association between paternal smoking in the year before the child’s birth and CBT, especially astrocytomas. These findings need to be replicated in other samples, using similar classifications of tumour subtypes.