The Capricorn Orogen in central Western Australia records the Palaeoproterozoic collision of the Archaean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. Until recently only one orogenic event was thought to be the cause of this collision, the 1830-1780Ma Capricorn Orogeny. However, recent work has uncovered an older event, the Glenburgh Orogeny that occurred between 2000 and 1960Ma. The Glenburgh Orogeny reflects the collision of a late Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic microcontinent (the Glenburgh Terrane) with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton and is therefore tectonically distinct as well as significantly older than the widespread 1900-1800Ma tectonothermal events recorded in northern Australia. The Glenburgh Terrane preserves a different history from either the Yilgarn or Pilbara Cratons. Granitic gneiss protoliths dated at ca. 2550Ma were intruded by widespread granite magmatism dated at 2005-1970Ma, accompanied by high-grade metamorphism and deformation throughout the terrane. At ca. 1960Ma silicic granite of the Bertibubba Supersuite intruded the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton along the Errabiddy Shear Zone, a crustal-scale shear zone that today marks the contact of the Glenburgh Terrane and Yilgarn Craton. At ca. 1950Ma silicic dykes intruded the southernmost part of the Glenburgh Terrane, marking the end of the Glenburgh Orogeny. East of the Glenburgh Terrane the Glenburgh Orogeny resulted in the cessation of mafic volcanism in the Bryah Basin, and the basin's eventual closure. Siliciclastic, carbonate and chemical sedimentary rocks were deposited in the Padbury Basin that formed a retro-arc foreland basin on top of the Bryah Basin, and probably records the later stages of the Glenburgh Orogeny collision. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.