Background: Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages popular among young people. They are linked to serious adverse health effects leading some countries to ban the sale of these drinks. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of young people's energy drink consumption require evidence to inform the development of comprehensive interventions. Objective:To investigate the individual, social and environment factors associated with adolescent energy drink consumption. Study Design, Settings, Participants: In 2018, all students in Grades 7-12 attending 25 randomly selected West Australian secondary schools were invited to complete an online survey on their knowledge, attitudes and experiences of energy drinks. A multilevel ecological framework was used. Measureable Outcome/Analysis: Each individual (n = 11), social (n = 3) and environmental factor (n = 3) was tested for a univariate association with the outcome variable (i.e., being a ‘current user’ of energy drinks yes/no, defined as consuming an energy drink in the last month). A backward stepwise elimination was used to construct a model of the most significant factors. Results: Half of the 3,688 adolescents surveyed (51%) had tried an energy drink; with 664 (18%) being current users. The factors most strongly associated with being a ‘current user’ (i.e., all P < .05) included being male (odds ratio [OR]: 1.54), having greater disposable income (OR: 1.19), perceiving energy drinks were good for health (OR: 1.41) or safe (OR: 1.69), having a sensation seeking personality (OR: 1.04), having friends that drink energy drinks (OR: 2.88), having parents who would give them energy drinks if asked (OR: 2.63) and having energy drinks available at home (OR: 4.00). Conclusion: Initiatives to reduce the consumption of energy drinks among adolescents need to be multifaceted; addressing individual and social factors and access to energy drinks in the home. Educational interventions targeting both the parent and the adolescent also appear to be important. Funding: Telethon-Perth Children's Hospital, National Health and Medical Research Council.