Ozonolysis of alpha-phellandrene - Part 1: Gas- and particle-phase characterisation

Felix A. Mackenzie-Rae, Tengyu Liu, Wei Deng, Xinming Wang, Sandra M. Saunders, Zheng Fang, Yanli Zhang

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ozonolysis of alpha-phellandrene, a highly reactive conjugated monoterpene largely emitted by Eucalypt species, is characterised in detail for the first time using a smog chamber at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Gas-phase species were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF), with yields from a large number of products obtained, including formaldehyde (59 %), acetaldehyde (0.2-8 %), glyoxal (6-23 %), methyl glyoxal (2-9 %), formic acid (22-37 %) and acetic acid (9-22 %). Higher m/z second-generation oxidation products were also observed, with products tentatively identified according to a constructed degradation mechanism. OH yields from alpha-phellandrene and its first-generation products were found to be 35 +/- 12 and 15 +/- 7 %, respectively, indicative of prominent hydroperoxide channels. An average first-generation rate coefficient was determined as 1.0 +/- 0.7 x 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, showing ozonolysis as a dominant loss process for both alpha-phellandrene and its first-generation products in the atmosphere. Endocyclic conjugation in alpha-phellandrene was also found to be conducive to the formation of highly condensible products with a large fraction of the carbon mass partitioning into the aerosol phase, which was monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Nucleation was observed almost instantaneously upon ozonolysis, indicating the rapid formation of extremely low-volatility compounds. Particle nucleation was found to be suppressed by the addition of either NO2 or a Criegee scavenger, with it being proposed that stabilised Criegee intermediates are important for new particle formation in the system. Aerosol yields ranged from 25 to 174% depending on mass loadings, with both first-and second-generation products identified as large contributors to the aerosol mass. In short, with a high chemical reactivity and aerosol-forming propensity, alpha-phellandrene is expected to have an immediate impact on the local environment to which it is emitted, with ozonolysis likely to be an important contributor to the significant blue haze and frequent nocturnal nucleation events observed over Eucalypt forests.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6583-6609
Number of pages27
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume17
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2017

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