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Oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been co-opted during evolution into the regulation of plant growth, development, and differentiation. ROS and oxidative signals arising from metabolism or phytohormone-mediated processes control almost every aspect of plant development from seed and bud dormancy, liberation of meristematic cells from the quiescent state, root and shoot growth, and architecture, to flowering and seed production. Moreover, the phytochrome and phytohormone-dependent transmissions of ROS waves are central to the systemic whole plant signaling pathways that integrate root and shoot growth. The sensing of oxygen availability through the PROTEOLYSIS 6 (PRT6) N-degron pathway functions alongside ROS production and signaling but how these pathways interact in developing organs remains poorly understood. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the nature of hydrogen peroxide sensors and the role of thiol-dependent signaling networks in the transmission of ROS signals. Reduction/oxidation (redox) changes in the glutathione (GSH) pool, glutaredoxins (GRXs), and thioredoxins (TRXs) are important in the control of growth mediated by phytohormone pathways. Although, it is clear that the redox states of proteins involved in plant growth and development are controlled by the NAD(P)H thioredoxin reductase (NTR)/TRX and reduced GSH/GRX systems of the cytosol, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, we have only scratched the surface of this multilayered control and how redox-regulated processes interact with other cell signaling systems.
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