Herbicides are the major tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds. However, over-reliance on herbicides has resulted in weed adaptation and herbicide resistance. In recent years, early flowering weed species related to herbicide resistance is emerging, which may cause seed loss before crop harvest, creating a new problem for non-chemical weed management. In this study, a homologue gene of AGAMOUS sub-family (referred to as PfAG5) of the MADS-box family was cloned from plants of an early flowering Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud. population resistant to the ACCase inhibitor herbicide (clodinafop-propargyl). The PfAG5 gene was functionally characterised in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Overexpression of the PfAG5 gene in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering, abnormal flowers (e.g. small petals), short plants and reduced seed set, compared with the wild type. The expression of the PfAG5 gene was high in leaves and flowers, but low in pods in transgenic Arabidopsis. The PfAG5 gene was expressed earlier and higher in the resistant (R) than the susceptible (S) P. fugax plants. Furthermore, one protein (FRIGIDA-like) with relevance to flowering time regulation and interacts with PfAG5 in resistant (R) P. fugax was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays. These results suggest that the PfAG5 gene is involved in modulating early flowering in P. fugax.