Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine, which is involved in the disorders of both immune and skeletal systems. The exact pathogenesis of AS is not fully understood. Osteoimmunology is a new subject of study in inflammatory arthritis, in particular the pathogenic events involved in the cross-regulation of both skeletal and immune systems. In this review, we discuss osteoimmunological and pathological changes of AS in the spine that are characterized by altered osteogenesis and osteolytic bone destruction, accompanied by the changes of the immune system. It was revealed that bone cells like mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblast, and osteoclast in crossing talking with immune cells such as T cells, B cells coregulate to the pathogenesis of AS. Further, an array of cytokines and molecules expressed by both skeletal and immune systems contribute to these complex interplays. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of AS will lay a foundation for the exploration of the potential new treatment to AS.