Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease; it is increasingly common in the aging population of Western society and has a major health economic impact. Despite surgery and symptom-oriented approaches there is no efficient treatment. Conventional radiography has played a role in the past in confirming diagnosis and demonstrating late bony changes and joint space narrowing. MRI has become the method of choice in large research endeavors and may become important for individualized treatment planning. This article focuses on radiography and MRI, with insight into other modalities, such as ultrasound, scintigraphy, and CT. Their role in OA diagnosis, follow-up, and research is discussed.