Transcription factors (TFs) have a central role in genome regulation directing gene transcription through binding specific DNA sequences. Eukaryotic genomes encode a large diversity of TF classes, each defined by unique DNA-interaction domains. Recent advances in genome sequencing and phylogenetic placement of diverse eukaryotic and archaeal species are re-defining the evolutionary history of eukaryotic TFs. The emerging view from a comparative genomics perspective is that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) had an extensive repertoire of TFs, most of which represent eukaryotic evolutionary novelties. This burst of TF innovation coincides with the emergence of genomic nuclear segregation and complex chromatin organization.