Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by combining two heterogeneous perspectives, integrating OCB-related factors at work using both personal and organizational perspectives, thus contributing to the knowledge of OCB. Design/methodology/approach Two studies are conducted using surveys in Taiwan with a snowball sampling technique to enlarge participation. Study 1 analyzes the relationships between organizational identification (OID), expected psychological contract (PC), perceived PC (PPC) and OCB. Study 2 analyzes the relationship between OCB and principals' (or head teachers') leadership frames (LFs). Findings Study 1 finds that OID is an antecedent of OCB and that expected PC (EPC) moderates the OID-OCB relationship. Study 2 finds that the symbolic LF is the only antecedent of OCB and that different LFs influence each other in predicting OCB. EPC is found to moderate the OID-OCB relationship, indicating that primary school teachers' (PSTs) with higher levels of EPC are more likely to demonstrate OCB at school. Interestingly, PPC did not demonstrate such a moderating effect. Originality/value The study makes three contributions. First, the authors analyze composite OCB via identity and PC theories (Study 1). Second, the authors scrutinize specific aspects of OCB via leader-member-exchange and LF theories. These aspects include assisting colleagues, job commitment, working morale and non-selfish behavior (Study 2). Third, the authors increase understanding of PSTs' OCB, discussing important implications for school principals and human resource managers as well as perhaps others in similar sectors.