© Medicina Oral S. L. Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that has been repeatedly used since World War I. SM has chronic and deleterious effects on different body organs such as lungs, skin and eyes. Objectives: To determine dental and oral health status of chemical victims of SM who were exposed to SM during the Iraqi-Iran war. Material and Methods: In this case-control study, 100 male subjects exposed to SM were chosen as cases, and 100 non-exposed volunteers were chosen as controls. These groups were selected randomly according to their referral number, and were matched regarding age. Collection of information was performed using Oral Health Assessment Form designed by the World Health Organization. Quantitative and qualitative data were compared between the groups using independent samples t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Results: There was a significant difference between the case and control groups with respect to the frequencies of oral candidiasis, pharyngeal erythema and/or hyperplasia, hairy tongue and reflux disease, being higher in the former group. There was also a positive association between the frequency of candidiasis and the percentage of disability; pharyngeal erythema and/or hyperplasia and use of salmeterol spray; and between hairy tongue and antibiotic use in the case group. Conclusions: Exposure to SM and the use of drugs for controlling long-term complications does not increase the risk of tooth decay, tooth loss, and intra and/or extra oral lesions in patients, but may be associated with increased incidence of oral candidiasis, pharyngeal erythema and/or hyperplasia, hairy tongue and reflux disease.