Optimising smoke treatments for jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest rehabilitation

M.A. Norman, Julie Plummer, J.M. Koch, G.R. Mullins

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    14 Citations (Scopus)


    Alcoa is undertaking rehabilitation in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata D. Don ex Sm.) forest ofWestern Australia, following bauxite mining. One of the methods used in the rehabilitation program is broadcasting seeds; however, about two-thirds of species require seed-dormancy-breaking treatments. Smoke overcomes dormancy and enhances the germination of many jarrah forest species. Smoke-application methods were investigated to find the best seed treatment for 64 jarrah forest species. The optimum duration of seed imbibition in aqueous smoke and dilution of the aqueous smoke product were also investigated. The method of smoke application was important. Smoke water enhanced the germination of 12% of species, whereas aerosol smoke enhanced the germination of 6% of species. Both Grevillea pilulifera (Lindl.) Druce and Velleia trinervis Labill. had germination enhanced by both smoke-application methods. Aerosol smoke inhibited the germination of Clematis pubescens Endl. and Hypocalymma angustifolium (Endl.) Schauer. A total of 78% of species did not exhibit significantly enhanced germination when smoke treated, including the two species inhibited by smoke treatment. Germination was equivalent following 1- and 12-h imbibition in the aqueous smoke extract. Dilutions of the aqueous extract Regen 2000 Smokemaster from 1 to 3% were optimal for the germination of Marianthus bicolor (Putt.) F. Muell and Stylidium amoenum R. Br., even after subsequent washing with water, demonstrating the irreversible nature of smoke treatments. For species that did not exhibit smoke-enhanced germination, other dormancy-breaking treatments may be required before a response to smoke is elicited. These results have application to a wide variety of natural managed lands, disturbed and designed landscapes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)571-581
    JournalAustralian Journal of Botany
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2006


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