Optimisation of Bee Pollen Extraction to Maximise Extractable Antioxidant Constituents

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This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive review on common bee pollen processing methods which can impact extraction efficiency and lead to differences in measured total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) data. This hampers the comparative analysis of bee pollen from different floral sources and geographical locations. Based on the review, an indepth investigation was carried out to identify the most efficient process to maximise the extraction of components for measurement of TPC, DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activity for two bee pollen samples from western Australia (Jarrah and Marri pollen). Optimisation by Design of Experiment
with Multilevel Factorial Analysis (Categorical) modelling was performed. The independent variables included pollen pulverisation, the extraction solvent (70% aqueous ethanol, ethanol, methanol and water) and the extraction process (agitation, maceration, reflux and sonication). The data demonstrate that non-pulverised bee pollen extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol using the agitation extraction method constitute the optimal conditions to maximise the extraction of phenolics and antioxidant principles in these bee pollen samples.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1113
Number of pages41
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2021


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