Optical Frequency Standards and Measurements

L. Hollberg, C.W. Oates, E.A. Curtis, Eugene Ivanov, S.A. Diddams, T. Udem, H.G. Robinson, J.C. Bergquist, R.J. Rafac, W.M. Itano, R.E. Drullinger, D.J. Wineland

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    103 Citations (Scopus)


    We describe the performance characteristics and frequency measurements of two high-accuracy high-stability laser-cooled atomic frequency standards. One is a 657-nm (456-THz) reference using magneto-optically trapped Ca atoms, and the other is a 282-mn (1064-TRz) reference based on a single Hg+ ion confined in an RF-Paul trap. A femtosecond mode-locked laser combined with a nonlinear microstructure fiber produces a broad and stable comb of optical modes that is used to measure the frequencies of the reference lasers locked to the atomic standards. The measurement system is referenced to the primary frequency standard NIST F-1, a Cs atomic fountain clock. Both optical standards demonstrate exceptional short-term instability (approximate to5 x 10(-15) at 1 s), as well as excellent reproducibility over time. In light of our expectations for the future of optical frequency standards, we consider the present performance of the femtosecond optical frequency comb, along with its limitations and future requirements.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1502-1512
    JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2001


    Dive into the research topics of 'Optical Frequency Standards and Measurements'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this