On the shoulders of giants: Properties of the stellar halo and the milky way mass distribution

Prajwal Kafle, S.K. Sharma, G.F. Lewis, J. Bland-Hawthorn

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    101 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components - a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A∗ proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R⊙= 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2+1.1 -1.0kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7+15.6 -15.8kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with βs = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass Mvirto be 0.80+0.31 -0.16× 1012M⊙, concentration c to be 21.1+14.8 -8.3, disk mass to be 0.95+0.24 -0.30× 1011M⊙, disk scale length to be 4.9+0.4 -0.4kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91+0.31 -0.38×1010M⊙. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity νesc= 550.9+32.4 -22.1km s-1and dark matter density ρDM ⊙= 0.0088+0.0024 -0.0018M⊙pc-3(0.35+0.08 -0.07GeV cm-3) are in good agreement with recent estimates. Some of the above estimates, in particular Mvir, are dependent on the adopted value of R⊙and also on the choice of the outer power-law index of the tracer number density.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-17
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume794
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Fingerprint

    shoulders
    mass distribution
    halos
    kinematics
    tracer
    tracers
    anisotropy
    giant stars
    galaxies
    stars
    dark matter
    distribution
    estimates
    K stars
    escape velocity
    terminal velocity
    power law
    proper motion
    low speed
    sun

    Cite this

    Kafle, Prajwal ; Sharma, S.K. ; Lewis, G.F. ; Bland-Hawthorn, J. / On the shoulders of giants: Properties of the stellar halo and the milky way mass distribution. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 794, No. 1. pp. 1-17.
    @article{e4621aea9f4c4b4c9a22cb868bdb5043,
    title = "On the shoulders of giants: Properties of the stellar halo and the milky way mass distribution",
    abstract = "{\circledC} 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components - a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A∗ proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R⊙= 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2+1.1 -1.0kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7+15.6 -15.8kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with βs = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass Mvirto be 0.80+0.31 -0.16× 1012M⊙, concentration c to be 21.1+14.8 -8.3, disk mass to be 0.95+0.24 -0.30× 1011M⊙, disk scale length to be 4.9+0.4 -0.4kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91+0.31 -0.38×1010M⊙. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity νesc= 550.9+32.4 -22.1km s-1and dark matter density ρDM ⊙= 0.0088+0.0024 -0.0018M⊙pc-3(0.35+0.08 -0.07GeV cm-3) are in good agreement with recent estimates. Some of the above estimates, in particular Mvir, are dependent on the adopted value of R⊙and also on the choice of the outer power-law index of the tracer number density.",
    author = "Prajwal Kafle and S.K. Sharma and G.F. Lewis and J. Bland-Hawthorn",
    year = "2014",
    doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/59",
    language = "English",
    volume = "794",
    pages = "1--17",
    journal = "The Astrophysical Journal",
    issn = "0004-637X",
    publisher = "IOP Publishing",
    number = "1",

    }

    On the shoulders of giants: Properties of the stellar halo and the milky way mass distribution. / Kafle, Prajwal; Sharma, S.K.; Lewis, G.F.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 794, No. 1, 2014, p. 1-17.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - On the shoulders of giants: Properties of the stellar halo and the milky way mass distribution

    AU - Kafle, Prajwal

    AU - Sharma, S.K.

    AU - Lewis, G.F.

    AU - Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - © 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components - a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A∗ proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R⊙= 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2+1.1 -1.0kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7+15.6 -15.8kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with βs = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass Mvirto be 0.80+0.31 -0.16× 1012M⊙, concentration c to be 21.1+14.8 -8.3, disk mass to be 0.95+0.24 -0.30× 1011M⊙, disk scale length to be 4.9+0.4 -0.4kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91+0.31 -0.38×1010M⊙. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity νesc= 550.9+32.4 -22.1km s-1and dark matter density ρDM ⊙= 0.0088+0.0024 -0.0018M⊙pc-3(0.35+0.08 -0.07GeV cm-3) are in good agreement with recent estimates. Some of the above estimates, in particular Mvir, are dependent on the adopted value of R⊙and also on the choice of the outer power-law index of the tracer number density.

    AB - © 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components - a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A∗ proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R⊙= 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2+1.1 -1.0kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7+15.6 -15.8kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with βs = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass Mvirto be 0.80+0.31 -0.16× 1012M⊙, concentration c to be 21.1+14.8 -8.3, disk mass to be 0.95+0.24 -0.30× 1011M⊙, disk scale length to be 4.9+0.4 -0.4kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91+0.31 -0.38×1010M⊙. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity νesc= 550.9+32.4 -22.1km s-1and dark matter density ρDM ⊙= 0.0088+0.0024 -0.0018M⊙pc-3(0.35+0.08 -0.07GeV cm-3) are in good agreement with recent estimates. Some of the above estimates, in particular Mvir, are dependent on the adopted value of R⊙and also on the choice of the outer power-law index of the tracer number density.

    U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/59

    DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/59

    M3 - Article

    VL - 794

    SP - 1

    EP - 17

    JO - The Astrophysical Journal

    JF - The Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 1

    ER -