Olfactory identification deficits at identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis are associated with poor functional outcome

Ashleigh Lin, W.J. Brewer, A.R. Yung, B. Nelson, C. Pantelis, S.J. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


© 2014 Elsevier B.V. Background: We have previously reported that olfactory identification (OI) deficits are a promising premorbid marker of transition from ultra-high risk (UHR) to schizophrenia, but not to psychotic illness more generally. Whether this remains the case at longer follow-up, and whether there is decline in OI ability are unclear. Method: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 81 participants at baseline (identification of risk for psychosis) and 254 individuals at follow-up. Forty-nine participants underwent UPSIT assessment at both time points. UPSIT scores were investigated at an average of 7.08. years after identification of risk in relation to transition to psychosis, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and psychosocial/functional outcome. Results: UPSIT scores at baseline and follow-up did not differ between participants who transitioned to psychosis and those who did not. Similarly, there were no significant differences on UPSIT scores at baseline or follow-up between individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and transitioned individuals without schizophrenia. Those with a poor functional outcome showed significantly lower baseline UPSIT scores than participants with good outcome. There was no significant association between functional outcome and follow-up UPSIT scores. There were no significant changes in UPSIT over time for any group. Conclusions: These results suggest that impaired OI is not a good marker of the onset of psychosis and schizophrenia, but may differentiate UHR individuals who experience a poor functional outcome, regardless of transition status.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-162
Number of pages7
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Olfactory identification deficits at identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis are associated with poor functional outcome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this