The oral cavity is home to over 700 species of bacteria, known as the human oral microbiome. The oral cavity is an ideal environment for bacterial colonization and growth. Although the majority of these bacteria are beneficial to human health and do not cause disease, under particular circumstances, bacterial infections can occur. The most common bacterial diseases that occur in the oral cavity are in the form of dental caries, periodontal diseases, and pulp, root canal, and periapical diseases. These diseases are overwhelmingly due to bacteria that are part of the normal oral microbiota, not exogenous pathogens. Pulp and root canal diseases can lead to periradicular conditions such as apical periodontitis, apical abscesses, facial cellulitis (with possible airway involvement), and osteomyelitis. Management of these diseases is based initially on obtaining a complete history and performing a thorough clinical and radiographic examination in order to develop an accurate diagnosis. Various treatment procedures can be provided, depending on the diagnosis – these range from simple dental restorations, periodontal treatment (scaling, root planning), or root canal treatment to extraction of the tooth. Various medical and surgical procedures plus the use of antimicrobial drug therapy are required in cases with severe infections and/or systemic signs of the infection. Other conditions such as osteonecrosis of the jaws must be differentiated from oral infections but they may have secondary bacterial involvement.
|Title of host publication||Contemporary Oral Medicine|
|Subtitle of host publication||A Comprehensive Approach to Clinical Practice|
|Editors||Camile Farah, Ramesh Balasubramaniam, Michael John McCullough|
|Place of Publication||Cham, Switzerland|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||53|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|