Ocean acidification in New Zealand waters: trends and impacts

Cliff S. Law, James J. Bell, Helen C. Bostock, Chris E. Cornwall, Vonda J. Cummings, Kim Currie, Simon K. Davy, Malindi Gammon, Christopher D. Hepburn, Catriona L. Hurd, Miles Lamare, Sara E. Mikaloff-Fletcher, Wendy A. Nelson, Darren M. Parsons, Norman L.C. Ragg, Mary A. Sewell, Abigail M. Smith, Dianne M. Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


The threat posed by ocean acidification (OA) to the diversity and productivity of New Zealand marine ecosystems is assessed in a synthesis of published trends and impacts. A 20-year time series in Subantarctic water, and a national coastal monitoring programme, provide insight into pH variability, and context for experimental design, modelling and projections. A review of the potential impact of changes in the carbonate system on the major phyla in New Zealand waters confirms international observations that calcifying organisms, and particularly their early life-history stages, are vulnerable. The synthesis considers ecosystem and socio-economic impacts, and identifies current knowledge gaps and future research directions, including mechanistic studies of OA sensitivity. Advanced ecosystem models of OA, that incorporate the indirect effects of OA and interactions with other climate stressors, are required for robust projection of the future status of New Zealand marine ecosystems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-195
Number of pages41
JournalNew Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2018


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