Stem canker of crucifers is caused by an ascomycete species complex comprising of two main species, Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa. These are composed of at least seven distinct subclades based on biochemical data or on sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mating type MAT1-2 or fragments of actin or P-tubulin genes. In the course of a wide-scale characterization of the race structure of L. maculans from Western Australia, a few isolates from two locations failed to amplify specific sequences of L. maculans, i.e., the mating-type or mini-satellite alleles. Based on both pathogenicity tests and ITS size, these isolates were classified as belonging to the L. biglobosa species. Parsimony and distance analyses performed on ITS, actin and P-tubulin sequences revealed that these isolates formed a new L. biglobosa subclade, more related to the Canadian L. biglobosa 'canadensis' subclade than to the L. biglobosa 'australensis' isolates previously described in Australia (Victoria). They are termed here as L. biglobosa 'occiaustralensis'. These isolates were mainly recovered from resistant oilseed rape cultivars that included the Brassica rapa sp. sylvestris-derived resistance source, but not from the susceptible cv. Westar. The pathogenicity of L. biglobosa 'occiaustralensis' to cotyledons of most oilseed rape genotypes was higher than that of L. biglobosa 'canadensis' or L. biglobosa 'australensis' isolates.