Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome

Anna Joyce, Heather Elphick, Michael Farquhar, Paul Gringras, Hazel Evans, Romola S. Bucks, Jana Kreppner, Ruth Kingshott, Jane Martin, Janine Reynolds, Carla Rush, Johanna Gavlak, Catherine M. Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective/Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS) commonly experience difficulties with executive function (EF). They are also vulnerable to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). OSA is associated with EF deficits in typically developing children. A recent study reported an association between OSA and cognitive deficits in 38 school-aged children with DS. We experimentally investigated EF behaviours in young children with DS, and their association with OSA. Participants and Methods: Children with DS were recruited to take part in a larger study of OSA (N = 202). Parents of 80 children (50 male) aged 36 to 71 months (M = 56.90, SD = 10.19 months) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Of these 80 children, 69 were also successfully studied overnight with domiciliary cardiorespiratory polygraphy to diagnose OSA. Results: Obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index was in the normal range (0-1.49/h) for 28 children but indicated OSA (>= 1.5/h) in 41 children. Consistent with previous research, we found a large effect for children experiencing particular weaknesses in working memory, planning and organising, whilst emotional control was a relative strength. OSA was associated with poorer working memory (beta = .23, R2 = .05, p = .025), emotional control (beta = .20, R2 = .04, p = .047) and shifting (beta = .24, R2 = .06, p = .023). Conclusions: Findings suggest that known EF difficulties in DS are already evident at this young age. Children with DS already have limited cognitive reserve and can ill afford additional EF deficit associated with OSA. OSA is amenable to treatment and should be actively treated in these children to promote optimal cognitive development.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalBehavioral Sleep Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jul 2019

Cite this

Joyce, Anna ; Elphick, Heather ; Farquhar, Michael ; Gringras, Paul ; Evans, Hazel ; Bucks, Romola S. ; Kreppner, Jana ; Kingshott, Ruth ; Martin, Jane ; Reynolds, Janine ; Rush, Carla ; Gavlak, Johanna ; Hill, Catherine M. / Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome. In: Behavioral Sleep Medicine. 2019.
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title = "Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome",
abstract = "Objective/Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS) commonly experience difficulties with executive function (EF). They are also vulnerable to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). OSA is associated with EF deficits in typically developing children. A recent study reported an association between OSA and cognitive deficits in 38 school-aged children with DS. We experimentally investigated EF behaviours in young children with DS, and their association with OSA. Participants and Methods: Children with DS were recruited to take part in a larger study of OSA (N = 202). Parents of 80 children (50 male) aged 36 to 71 months (M = 56.90, SD = 10.19 months) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Of these 80 children, 69 were also successfully studied overnight with domiciliary cardiorespiratory polygraphy to diagnose OSA. Results: Obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index was in the normal range (0-1.49/h) for 28 children but indicated OSA (>= 1.5/h) in 41 children. Consistent with previous research, we found a large effect for children experiencing particular weaknesses in working memory, planning and organising, whilst emotional control was a relative strength. OSA was associated with poorer working memory (beta = .23, R2 = .05, p = .025), emotional control (beta = .20, R2 = .04, p = .047) and shifting (beta = .24, R2 = .06, p = .023). Conclusions: Findings suggest that known EF difficulties in DS are already evident at this young age. Children with DS already have limited cognitive reserve and can ill afford additional EF deficit associated with OSA. OSA is amenable to treatment and should be actively treated in these children to promote optimal cognitive development.",
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author = "Anna Joyce and Heather Elphick and Michael Farquhar and Paul Gringras and Hazel Evans and Bucks, {Romola S.} and Jana Kreppner and Ruth Kingshott and Jane Martin and Janine Reynolds and Carla Rush and Johanna Gavlak and Hill, {Catherine M.}",
year = "2019",
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Joyce, A, Elphick, H, Farquhar, M, Gringras, P, Evans, H, Bucks, RS, Kreppner, J, Kingshott, R, Martin, J, Reynolds, J, Rush, C, Gavlak, J & Hill, CM 2019, 'Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome' Behavioral Sleep Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2019.1641501

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome. / Joyce, Anna; Elphick, Heather; Farquhar, Michael; Gringras, Paul; Evans, Hazel; Bucks, Romola S.; Kreppner, Jana; Kingshott, Ruth; Martin, Jane; Reynolds, Janine; Rush, Carla; Gavlak, Johanna; Hill, Catherine M.

In: Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Contributes to Executive Function Impairment in Young Children with Down Syndrome

AU - Joyce, Anna

AU - Elphick, Heather

AU - Farquhar, Michael

AU - Gringras, Paul

AU - Evans, Hazel

AU - Bucks, Romola S.

AU - Kreppner, Jana

AU - Kingshott, Ruth

AU - Martin, Jane

AU - Reynolds, Janine

AU - Rush, Carla

AU - Gavlak, Johanna

AU - Hill, Catherine M.

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - Objective/Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS) commonly experience difficulties with executive function (EF). They are also vulnerable to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). OSA is associated with EF deficits in typically developing children. A recent study reported an association between OSA and cognitive deficits in 38 school-aged children with DS. We experimentally investigated EF behaviours in young children with DS, and their association with OSA. Participants and Methods: Children with DS were recruited to take part in a larger study of OSA (N = 202). Parents of 80 children (50 male) aged 36 to 71 months (M = 56.90, SD = 10.19 months) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Of these 80 children, 69 were also successfully studied overnight with domiciliary cardiorespiratory polygraphy to diagnose OSA. Results: Obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index was in the normal range (0-1.49/h) for 28 children but indicated OSA (>= 1.5/h) in 41 children. Consistent with previous research, we found a large effect for children experiencing particular weaknesses in working memory, planning and organising, whilst emotional control was a relative strength. OSA was associated with poorer working memory (beta = .23, R2 = .05, p = .025), emotional control (beta = .20, R2 = .04, p = .047) and shifting (beta = .24, R2 = .06, p = .023). Conclusions: Findings suggest that known EF difficulties in DS are already evident at this young age. Children with DS already have limited cognitive reserve and can ill afford additional EF deficit associated with OSA. OSA is amenable to treatment and should be actively treated in these children to promote optimal cognitive development.

AB - Objective/Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS) commonly experience difficulties with executive function (EF). They are also vulnerable to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). OSA is associated with EF deficits in typically developing children. A recent study reported an association between OSA and cognitive deficits in 38 school-aged children with DS. We experimentally investigated EF behaviours in young children with DS, and their association with OSA. Participants and Methods: Children with DS were recruited to take part in a larger study of OSA (N = 202). Parents of 80 children (50 male) aged 36 to 71 months (M = 56.90, SD = 10.19 months) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Of these 80 children, 69 were also successfully studied overnight with domiciliary cardiorespiratory polygraphy to diagnose OSA. Results: Obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index was in the normal range (0-1.49/h) for 28 children but indicated OSA (>= 1.5/h) in 41 children. Consistent with previous research, we found a large effect for children experiencing particular weaknesses in working memory, planning and organising, whilst emotional control was a relative strength. OSA was associated with poorer working memory (beta = .23, R2 = .05, p = .025), emotional control (beta = .20, R2 = .04, p = .047) and shifting (beta = .24, R2 = .06, p = .023). Conclusions: Findings suggest that known EF difficulties in DS are already evident at this young age. Children with DS already have limited cognitive reserve and can ill afford additional EF deficit associated with OSA. OSA is amenable to treatment and should be actively treated in these children to promote optimal cognitive development.

KW - AGE-CHILDREN

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

KW - ADENOIDECTOMY

KW - TONSILLECTOMY

KW - INDIVIDUALS

KW - PREDICTORS

KW - ABILITY

KW - IMPACT

KW - BRAIN

U2 - 10.1080/15402002.2019.1641501

DO - 10.1080/15402002.2019.1641501

M3 - Article

JO - Behavioral Sleep Medicine

JF - Behavioral Sleep Medicine

SN - 1540-2002

ER -