Parental incarceration has been associated with educational disadvantages for children, such as lower educational attainment, increased grade retention, and truancy and suspensions. However, children exposed to parental incarceration often experience other adversities that are also associated with educational disadvantage; the contribution of these co-occurring adversities has not been considered in previous research. This study aimed to investigate the educational outcomes of children exposed to (a) maternal incarceration alone and (b) maternal incarceration plus other adversities (i.e., maternal mental illness and/or child protective services [CPS] contact). We used linked administrative data for a sample of children whose mothers were incarcerated during the children's childhood (i.e., from the time of mother's pregnancy through the child's 18th birthday; n = 3828) and a comparison group of children whose mothers had not been incarcerated (n = 9570). Multivariate multinomial logistic regressions examined the association between exposure to the three adversities (i.e., maternal incarceration, maternal mental illness, and child CPS contact) and above or below average reading and numeracy attainment in Grades 3, 5, 7 and 9. At all grade levels, children exposed to maternal incarceration alone and those exposed to maternal incarceration plus other adversities had increased odds of below average numeracy and reading attainment and decreased odds of above average numeracy and reading attainment compared to children without any of the recorded exposures. Children exposed to maternal incarceration and CPS contact and those exposed to all three adversities had increased odds of below average reading and numeracy attainment compared to children exposed to maternal incarceration alone. The findings highlight the complex needs of children of incarcerated mothers that must be considered when designing and delivering educational support programs. These children would benefit from the implementation of multi-tiered, trauma-informed educational and clinical services.