© W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2015. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between folate, cobalamin (Cbl), and homocysteine (Hcy), and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress within the periphery and central nervous system (CNS) of a healthy human cohort. Methods: Thirty-five matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were collected from consenting participants who required a spinal tap for the administration of anaesthetic. Plasma concentrations of Hcy and both plasma and CSF levels of folate, Cbl, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, IL-6), and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) were quantified. Results: In the peripheral circulation, positive associations were observed between plasma folate and Cbl, and plasma TAC (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.01) and plasma NAD(H) (P ≤ 0.05; P ≤ 0.05) levels, respectively. Plas mafolate was inversely associated with plasma Hcy concentrations (P ≤ 0.05); however, no statistically significant relationships were observed between plasma Hcy and plasma markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, or [NAD(H)]. Within the CNS plasma Hcy correlated positively with CSF IL-6 (P ≤ 0.01) and negatively with CSF NAD(H) (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations. An inverse association was observed between CSF folate and CSF levels of IL-6 (P ≤ 0.05). Unexpectedly, a positive association between CSF Cbl and CSF 8-OHdG levels was also found (P ≤ 0.01). Discussion: These results indicate that folate and Cbl concentrations may influence the levels of oxidative damage, inflammation, and NAD(H), both systemically and within the CNS.