Objectives-To determine the molecular basis for autosomal dominant intermediate hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in a four generation family. The gene defects in families with intermediate HMSN are not known, but it has been suggested that most have X linked HMSN.Methods-All participating family members were examined clinically. Genomic DNA was obtained from 10 affected and seven unaffected members. Linkage analysis for the known HMSN loci was first performed. Mutations in the peripheral myelin protein zero gene (PMP0) were sought in two affected members, using one unaffected member for comparison, by amplification of the six exons of the gene followed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF), and sequencing. Subsequently, the mutation was screened for in all affected and unaffected members in the family using Alu I digestion and in 100 unrelated control subjects using "snap back" SSCP analysis. Sequencing of cDNA from a sural nerve biopsy from an affected member was also performed.Results-The clinical phenotype was of variable severity, with motor nerve conduction velocities in the intermediate range. Linkage to PMP0 was demonstrated. Analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA for PMP0 identified a novel codon 35 GAC to TAC mutation. The mutation produces an inferred amino acid change of aspartate to tyrosine at codon six of the processed protein (Asp6Tyr) in the extracellular domain and was present in all affected family members but not in 100 unrelated controls.Conclusions-The present findings further extend the range of phenotypes associated with PMP0 mutations and indicate that families with "intermediate" HMSN need not necessarily be X-linked as previously suggested.