Background Our previous investigation of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation using a Finnish job-exposure matrix (JEM) showed no association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a population-based case–control study in Australia.Aims To determine whether occupational exposure to ionizing radiation assessed using an Australian JEM is associated with NHL.Methods We analysed 694 NHL cases, first diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2001 and 694 controls from south-eastern Australia, matched by age, sex and region of residence. A detailed occupational history was obtained using a lifetime calendar and a telephone interview. Exposure to radiation was assessed using the ionizing radiation component of an Australian JEM. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from logistic regression models that included the matching variables as covariates.Results The OR for workers ever exposed to ionizing radiation was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.52–1.40). Dividing the subjects into tertiles of exposure also found ORs that were close to or below the null for each exposure group.Conclusions The application of an Australian JEM did not provide evidence for an association between NHL and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and is consistent with previous analyses.