Non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared with LDL-cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment

Stuart S. Carr, Amanda J. Hooper, David R. Sullivan, John R. Burnett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the predominant atherogenic lipoprotein particle in the circulation. Conventionally, a fasting lipid profile has been used for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment. A non-fasting sample is now regarded as a suitable alternative to a fasting sample. In routine clinical practice, the Friedewald equation is used to estimate LDL-cholesterol, but it has limitations. Commercially available direct measures of LDL-cholesterol are not standardised. LDL-cholesterol is a well-established risk factor for ASCVD, being the primary therapeutic target in both primary and secondary prevention. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is a measure of the cholesterol content in the atherogenic lipoproteins, but it does not reflect the particle number. Non-HDL-cholesterol has the advantage over LDL-cholesterol of including remnant cholesterol and being independent of triglyceride variability, but it is compromised by the non-specificity bias of direct HDL-cholesterol methods used in the calculation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major structural protein in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, LDL and lipoprotein (a), is a measure of the number of atherogenic lipoproteins. ApoB methods are standardised, but the assay comes at an additional, albeit relatively low cost. Non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are more accurate measures than LDL-cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals, non-fasting samples, and in those with very-low LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are superior to LDL-cholesterol in predicting ASCVD risk, and both have been designated as secondary targets in some treatment guidelines. We review the measurement, potential role, utility and current status of non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB when compared with LDL-cholesterol in ASCVD risk assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-154
Number of pages7
JournalPathology
Volume51
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

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Apolipoproteins B
LDL Cholesterol
Cardiovascular Diseases
Lipoproteins
LDL Lipoproteins
Fasting
Cholesterol
IDL Lipoproteins
Lipoprotein(a)
lipoprotein cholesterol
VLDL Lipoproteins
Primary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
HDL Cholesterol
Triglycerides
Guidelines
Lipids
Costs and Cost Analysis
Therapeutics

Cite this

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title = "Non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared with LDL-cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment",
abstract = "Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the predominant atherogenic lipoprotein particle in the circulation. Conventionally, a fasting lipid profile has been used for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment. A non-fasting sample is now regarded as a suitable alternative to a fasting sample. In routine clinical practice, the Friedewald equation is used to estimate LDL-cholesterol, but it has limitations. Commercially available direct measures of LDL-cholesterol are not standardised. LDL-cholesterol is a well-established risk factor for ASCVD, being the primary therapeutic target in both primary and secondary prevention. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is a measure of the cholesterol content in the atherogenic lipoproteins, but it does not reflect the particle number. Non-HDL-cholesterol has the advantage over LDL-cholesterol of including remnant cholesterol and being independent of triglyceride variability, but it is compromised by the non-specificity bias of direct HDL-cholesterol methods used in the calculation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major structural protein in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, LDL and lipoprotein (a), is a measure of the number of atherogenic lipoproteins. ApoB methods are standardised, but the assay comes at an additional, albeit relatively low cost. Non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are more accurate measures than LDL-cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals, non-fasting samples, and in those with very-low LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are superior to LDL-cholesterol in predicting ASCVD risk, and both have been designated as secondary targets in some treatment guidelines. We review the measurement, potential role, utility and current status of non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB when compared with LDL-cholesterol in ASCVD risk assessment.",
keywords = "apolipoprotein B, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, LDL-cholesterol, Lipids, non-HDL-cholesterol, risk assessment",
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Non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared with LDL-cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment. / Carr, Stuart S.; Hooper, Amanda J.; Sullivan, David R.; Burnett, John R.

In: Pathology, Vol. 51, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 148-154.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared with LDL-cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment

AU - Carr, Stuart S.

AU - Hooper, Amanda J.

AU - Sullivan, David R.

AU - Burnett, John R.

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the predominant atherogenic lipoprotein particle in the circulation. Conventionally, a fasting lipid profile has been used for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment. A non-fasting sample is now regarded as a suitable alternative to a fasting sample. In routine clinical practice, the Friedewald equation is used to estimate LDL-cholesterol, but it has limitations. Commercially available direct measures of LDL-cholesterol are not standardised. LDL-cholesterol is a well-established risk factor for ASCVD, being the primary therapeutic target in both primary and secondary prevention. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is a measure of the cholesterol content in the atherogenic lipoproteins, but it does not reflect the particle number. Non-HDL-cholesterol has the advantage over LDL-cholesterol of including remnant cholesterol and being independent of triglyceride variability, but it is compromised by the non-specificity bias of direct HDL-cholesterol methods used in the calculation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major structural protein in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, LDL and lipoprotein (a), is a measure of the number of atherogenic lipoproteins. ApoB methods are standardised, but the assay comes at an additional, albeit relatively low cost. Non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are more accurate measures than LDL-cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals, non-fasting samples, and in those with very-low LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are superior to LDL-cholesterol in predicting ASCVD risk, and both have been designated as secondary targets in some treatment guidelines. We review the measurement, potential role, utility and current status of non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB when compared with LDL-cholesterol in ASCVD risk assessment.

AB - Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the predominant atherogenic lipoprotein particle in the circulation. Conventionally, a fasting lipid profile has been used for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment. A non-fasting sample is now regarded as a suitable alternative to a fasting sample. In routine clinical practice, the Friedewald equation is used to estimate LDL-cholesterol, but it has limitations. Commercially available direct measures of LDL-cholesterol are not standardised. LDL-cholesterol is a well-established risk factor for ASCVD, being the primary therapeutic target in both primary and secondary prevention. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is a measure of the cholesterol content in the atherogenic lipoproteins, but it does not reflect the particle number. Non-HDL-cholesterol has the advantage over LDL-cholesterol of including remnant cholesterol and being independent of triglyceride variability, but it is compromised by the non-specificity bias of direct HDL-cholesterol methods used in the calculation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major structural protein in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, LDL and lipoprotein (a), is a measure of the number of atherogenic lipoproteins. ApoB methods are standardised, but the assay comes at an additional, albeit relatively low cost. Non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are more accurate measures than LDL-cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals, non-fasting samples, and in those with very-low LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are superior to LDL-cholesterol in predicting ASCVD risk, and both have been designated as secondary targets in some treatment guidelines. We review the measurement, potential role, utility and current status of non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB when compared with LDL-cholesterol in ASCVD risk assessment.

KW - apolipoprotein B

KW - atherosclerosis

KW - cardiovascular disease

KW - LDL-cholesterol

KW - Lipids

KW - non-HDL-cholesterol

KW - risk assessment

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U2 - 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.006

DO - 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.006

M3 - Review article

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JO - Pathology

JF - Pathology

SN - 0031-3025

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