Brassica crops face a combination of different abiotic and biotic stresses in the field that can reduce plant growth and development by affecting biochemical and morpho-physiological processes. Emerging evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), play a significant role in the modulation of gene expression in response to plant stresses. Recent advances in computational and experimental approaches are of great interest for identifying and functionally characterizing ncRNAs. While progress in this field is limited, numerous ncRNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to stress have been reported in Brassica. In this review, we summarize the modes of action and functions of stress-related miRNAs and lncRNAs in Brassica as well as the approaches used to identify ncRNAs.