© by Milan Chytrý 2015. During preparation of the European checklist of vegetation units (EuroVegChecklist), it became clear that some earlier described syntaxa need to be typified in order to stabilize nomenclature and some new syntaxa need to be described. Here we propose nomenclature adjustments and formal description of four new alliances for the Arctic, alpine and oro-Mediterranean vegetation of Europe, Greenland and Anatolia. First, we typify the class Juncetea trifidi. Second, we describe four new alliances, such as the Puccinellion nuttallianae (Low-Arctic salt steppes of Greenland; class Saxifrago tricuspidatae-Calamagrostietea purpurascentis), Dryado octopetalae- Caricion arctisibiricae (Arctic tundra vegetation of north-eastern European Russia; class Carici rupestris- Kobresietea bellardii), Leontopodio nivalis-Elynion myosuroidis (southern European alpine tundra vegetation; class Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii) and Lagotido uralensis-Caricion ensifoliae (alpine tundra vegetation of the Southern Ural Mountains; class Juncetea trifidi). Two new associations are described within the first two of these alliances. Finally, we present an interpretation of the alliance Muscario-Scillion nivalis.