nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes

Pascal J. Elahi, A. Knebe, F.R. Pearce, Chris Power, G. Yepes, Weiguang Cui, D. Cunnama, S.T. Kay, F. Sembolini, A.M. Beck, R. Davé, S. February, S. Huang, N. Katz, I.G. Mccarthy, G. Murante, V. Perret, E. Puchwein, A. Saro, R. Teyssier

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Abstract

© 2016 The Authors.
We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (Mcrit 200 = 1.1 × 1015 h-1M⊙) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 percent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h-1M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ~0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ~0.2-0.4 dex.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1096-1116
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume458
Issue number1
Early online date11 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

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galaxies
simulation
physics
hydrodynamics
stellar mass
code
dark matter
Tully-Fisher relation
galactic evolution
mass distribution
active galactic nuclei
mesh
halos
tuning
inclusions
gravity
gravitation
gases
gas

Cite this

Elahi, Pascal J. ; Knebe, A. ; Pearce, F.R. ; Power, Chris ; Yepes, G. ; Cui, Weiguang ; Cunnama, D. ; Kay, S.T. ; Sembolini, F. ; Beck, A.M. ; Davé, R. ; February, S. ; Huang, S. ; Katz, N. ; Mccarthy, I.G. ; Murante, G. ; Perret, V. ; Puchwein, E. ; Saro, A. ; Teyssier, R. / nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2016 ; Vol. 458, No. 1. pp. 1096-1116.
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abstract = "{\circledC} 2016 The Authors. We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (Mcrit 200 = 1.1 × 1015 h-1M⊙) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 percent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h-1M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ~0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ~0.2-0.4 dex.",
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Elahi, PJ, Knebe, A, Pearce, FR, Power, C, Yepes, G, Cui, W, Cunnama, D, Kay, ST, Sembolini, F, Beck, AM, Davé, R, February, S, Huang, S, Katz, N, Mccarthy, IG, Murante, G, Perret, V, Puchwein, E, Saro, A & Teyssier, R 2016, 'nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 458, no. 1, pp. 1096-1116. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw338

nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes. / Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, A.; Pearce, F.R.; Power, Chris; Yepes, G.; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, D.; Kay, S.T.; Sembolini, F.; Beck, A.M.; Davé, R.; February, S.; Huang, S.; Katz, N.; Mccarthy, I.G.; Murante, G.; Perret, V.; Puchwein, E.; Saro, A.; Teyssier, R.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, No. 1, 01.05.2016, p. 1096-1116.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes

AU - Elahi, Pascal J.

AU - Knebe, A.

AU - Pearce, F.R.

AU - Power, Chris

AU - Yepes, G.

AU - Cui, Weiguang

AU - Cunnama, D.

AU - Kay, S.T.

AU - Sembolini, F.

AU - Beck, A.M.

AU - Davé, R.

AU - February, S.

AU - Huang, S.

AU - Katz, N.

AU - Mccarthy, I.G.

AU - Murante, G.

AU - Perret, V.

AU - Puchwein, E.

AU - Saro, A.

AU - Teyssier, R.

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - © 2016 The Authors. We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (Mcrit 200 = 1.1 × 1015 h-1M⊙) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 percent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h-1M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ~0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ~0.2-0.4 dex.

AB - © 2016 The Authors. We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (Mcrit 200 = 1.1 × 1015 h-1M⊙) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 percent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h-1M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ~0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ~0.2-0.4 dex.

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/stw338

DO - 10.1093/mnras/stw338

M3 - Article

VL - 458

SP - 1096

EP - 1116

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 1

ER -