Diversification and niche marketing have become very important economic strategies for many rural small businesses, farmers and communities. As part of these strategies, new opportunities often emerge for traditional products and industries. In the case of Western Australia, this has contributed to the revitalisation of the sandalwood industry. While sandalwood has been exported from Western Australia for more than 150 years, for much of the second half of the twentieth century it was of little economic significance. In recent years, however, the industry has become increasingly entrepreneurial, successfully marketing its products into niche markets in the global economy. For farmers and communities in rural areas, the revitalisation of the sandalwood industry has also provided opportunities for economic diversification and a profitable way of tackling land degradation.