New insights into plastid nucleoid structure and functionality

Karin Krupinska, Joanna Melonek, Kirsten Krause

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Investigations over many decades have revealed that nucleoids of higher plant plastids are highly dynamic with regard to their number, their structural organization and protein composition. Membrane attachment and environmental cues seem to determine the activity and functionality of the nucleoids and point to a highly regulated structure-function relationship. The heterogeneous composition and the many functions that are seemingly associated with the plastid nucleoids could be related to the high number of chromosomes per plastid. Recent proteomic studies have brought novel nucleoid-associated proteins into the spotlight and indicated that plastid nucleoids are an evolutionary hybrid possessing prokaryotic nucleoid features and eukaryotic (nuclear) chromatin components, several of which are dually targeted to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Future studies need to unravel if and how plastid-nucleus communication depends on nucleoid structure and plastid gene expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)653-664
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


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