Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is clinically and biologically heterogeneous. Risk stratification at the time of diagnosis is critical. One of the most powerful prognostic indices is the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index-Combined, which integrates an estimate of proliferation (Ki67 index) with the standard Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index clinical factors. In addition, the presence of TP53 mutation is associated with suboptimal response to intensive chemoimmunotherapy and particularly dismal survival outcomes. Given their excellent activity in the relapsed/refractory setting, increasingly, biologically targeted therapeutics—such as covalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, lenalidomide, and venetoclax—are being incorporated into “chemotherapy-free” regimens and in combination with established chemoimmunotherapy backbones for treatment-naïve mantle cell lymphoma. In addition, risk-adapted treatment programs are increasingly being studied. These programs tailor treatment according to baseline prognostic factors (e.g., presence of TP53 mutation) and may incorporate biomarkers of response such as minimal residual disease assessment. Although still investigational, these studies present an opportunity to move beyond the biology-agnostic, historical fitness-based treatment selection paradigm and toward a more personalized, tailored treatment approach in mantle cell lymphoma. After Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor failure, many promising standard or investigational therapies exist, including CAR T-cell therapy (including brexucabtagene autoleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel), bispecific antibody therapy targeting CD20-CD3, zilovertamab vedotin (an antibody-drug conjugate that targets ROR1), and the noncovalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor pirtobrutinib. These new therapies show promising efficacy, even among high-risk patients, and will likely translate to improvements in survival outcomes for patients with progressive mantle cell lymphoma following treatment with a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor.