The application of neurotrophic factors as a therapy to improve morphological and behavioral outcomes after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) has been the focus of many studies. These studies vary markedly in the type of neurotrophic factor that is delivered, the mode of administration, and the location, timing, and duration of the treatment. Generally, the majority of studies have had significant success if neurotrophic factors are applied in or close to the lesion site during the acute or the subacute phase after SCI. Comparatively fewer studies have administered neurotrophic factors in order to directly target the somata of injured neurons. The mode of delivery varies between acute injection of recombinant proteins, subacute or chronic delivery using a variety of strategies including osmotic minipumps, cell-mediated delivery, delivery using polymer release vehicles or supporting bridges of some sort, or the use of gene therapy to modify neurons, glial cells, or precursor/stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the state of play of many of the therapies using these factors, most of which have been undertaken in rodent models of SCI.