Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults: a Meta-Analysis

Fiona Allanson, Carmela Pestell, G. E. Gignac, Yong Xiang Yeo, Michael Weinborn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several neuropsychological dimensions are correlated with functional outcome (e.g., ability to return to family and community roles) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Commonly investigated neuropsychological dimensions include verbal memory, visuo-spatial construction, set-shifting, generativity, and processing speed. Unfortunately, small sample sizes across relevant studies have contributed to inconsistent results. Furthermore, no studies have concurrently measured all of the candidate neuropsychological predictors, most of which are known to be inter-correlated. Thus, the unique predictive effects associated with the candidate predictors in TBI recovery have never been investigated. Consequently, this study used both meta-analysis and multiple regression to statistically evaluate neuropsychological candidate predictors across two outcome variables (1) the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) and (2) the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on the meta-analyses, the following neuropsychological dimensions were found to be correlated with the GOS-E: immediate verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.27, .58]), delayed verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.21, .61]), visuo-spatial construction (r = .29, 95% CI [.15, .53]), set-shifting (r = −.31, 95% CI [−.45, −.15], and generativity (r = .44, 95% CI [.32, .54]). By contrast, only one neuropsychological dimension was found to be significantly related to the DRS (generativity: r = −.21, 95% CI [−.39, −.01]). Multiple regression on the GOS-E relevant meta-analytically derived correlation matrix determined that all neuropsychological dimensions were significant predictors of the GOS-E (multiple R2 = .31) with the exception of immediate verbal memory or learning. However, due to analytic characteristics, these findings must be interpreted with caution. Results were consistent with the need to consider multiple neuropsychological abilities in recovery and rehabilitation following TBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-201
Number of pages15
JournalNeuropsychology Review
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2017

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Glasgow Outcome Scale
Meta-Analysis
Aptitude
Short-Term Memory
Repression (Psychology)
Sample Size
Rehabilitation
Learning
Traumatic Brain Injury

Cite this

@article{8606d65edf324088a2cdf734ef4a1844,
title = "Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults: a Meta-Analysis",
abstract = "Several neuropsychological dimensions are correlated with functional outcome (e.g., ability to return to family and community roles) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Commonly investigated neuropsychological dimensions include verbal memory, visuo-spatial construction, set-shifting, generativity, and processing speed. Unfortunately, small sample sizes across relevant studies have contributed to inconsistent results. Furthermore, no studies have concurrently measured all of the candidate neuropsychological predictors, most of which are known to be inter-correlated. Thus, the unique predictive effects associated with the candidate predictors in TBI recovery have never been investigated. Consequently, this study used both meta-analysis and multiple regression to statistically evaluate neuropsychological candidate predictors across two outcome variables (1) the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) and (2) the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on the meta-analyses, the following neuropsychological dimensions were found to be correlated with the GOS-E: immediate verbal memory (r = .43, 95{\%} CI [.27, .58]), delayed verbal memory (r = .43, 95{\%} CI [.21, .61]), visuo-spatial construction (r = .29, 95{\%} CI [.15, .53]), set-shifting (r = −.31, 95{\%} CI [−.45, −.15], and generativity (r = .44, 95{\%} CI [.32, .54]). By contrast, only one neuropsychological dimension was found to be significantly related to the DRS (generativity: r = −.21, 95{\%} CI [−.39, −.01]). Multiple regression on the GOS-E relevant meta-analytically derived correlation matrix determined that all neuropsychological dimensions were significant predictors of the GOS-E (multiple R2 = .31) with the exception of immediate verbal memory or learning. However, due to analytic characteristics, these findings must be interpreted with caution. Results were consistent with the need to consider multiple neuropsychological abilities in recovery and rehabilitation following TBI.",
keywords = "Disability Rating Scale, Functional outcome, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, Meta-analysis, Neuropsychological assessment, Traumatic brain injury",
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Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults : a Meta-Analysis. / Allanson, Fiona; Pestell, Carmela; Gignac, G. E.; Yeo, Yong Xiang; Weinborn, Michael.

In: Neuropsychology Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, 09.2017, p. 287-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults

T2 - a Meta-Analysis

AU - Allanson, Fiona

AU - Pestell, Carmela

AU - Gignac, G. E.

AU - Yeo, Yong Xiang

AU - Weinborn, Michael

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AB - Several neuropsychological dimensions are correlated with functional outcome (e.g., ability to return to family and community roles) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Commonly investigated neuropsychological dimensions include verbal memory, visuo-spatial construction, set-shifting, generativity, and processing speed. Unfortunately, small sample sizes across relevant studies have contributed to inconsistent results. Furthermore, no studies have concurrently measured all of the candidate neuropsychological predictors, most of which are known to be inter-correlated. Thus, the unique predictive effects associated with the candidate predictors in TBI recovery have never been investigated. Consequently, this study used both meta-analysis and multiple regression to statistically evaluate neuropsychological candidate predictors across two outcome variables (1) the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) and (2) the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on the meta-analyses, the following neuropsychological dimensions were found to be correlated with the GOS-E: immediate verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.27, .58]), delayed verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.21, .61]), visuo-spatial construction (r = .29, 95% CI [.15, .53]), set-shifting (r = −.31, 95% CI [−.45, −.15], and generativity (r = .44, 95% CI [.32, .54]). By contrast, only one neuropsychological dimension was found to be significantly related to the DRS (generativity: r = −.21, 95% CI [−.39, −.01]). Multiple regression on the GOS-E relevant meta-analytically derived correlation matrix determined that all neuropsychological dimensions were significant predictors of the GOS-E (multiple R2 = .31) with the exception of immediate verbal memory or learning. However, due to analytic characteristics, these findings must be interpreted with caution. Results were consistent with the need to consider multiple neuropsychological abilities in recovery and rehabilitation following TBI.

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KW - Functional outcome

KW - Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Neuropsychological assessment

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