Neuroprotective Cationic Arginine-Rich Peptides (CARPs): An Assessment of Their Clinical Safety

Adam B. Edwards, Frank L. Mastaglia, Neville W. Knuckey, Bruno P. Meloni

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Cationic arginine-rich peptides represent a novel class of peptides being developed as neuroprotective agents for stroke and other acute and chronic neurological disorders. As a group, cationic arginine-rich peptides have a diverse range of other biological properties including the ability to traverse cell membranes, modulate immune responses, antagonise ion channel receptor function, as well as possessing cardioprotective, anti-nociceptive, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. A sound understanding of their safety profile is essential for the design of future clinical trials and for ensuring translational success with these compounds. At present, while many neuroprotective cationic arginine-rich peptides have been examined in preclinical animal neuroprotection studies, few have been assessed in human safety studies. Despite this, the safety of the prototypical cationic arginine-rich peptide, protamine, which has been in clinical use for over 70 years to reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin and as an excipient in certain insulin preparations, is well established. In addition, the poly-arginine peptide R9 (ALX40-4C) was developed as an anti-human inmmunodeficiency virus therapeutic in the mid-1990s, and more recently, the neuroprotective cationic arginine-rich peptides TAT-NR2B9c (NA-1), CN-105 and RD2 are being evaluated for the treatment of ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke and Alzheimer’s disease, respectively. Based on the available clinical data, cationic arginine-rich peptides as a group appear to be safe when administered at therapeutic doses by a slow intravenous infusion. While protamine, owing to its isolation from salmon milt and homology with human sperm protamine, can trigger anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions in a small proportion of patients previously exposed to the peptide (e.g. diabetic patients), who are allergic to fish or have undergone a vasectomy, such reactions are unlikely to be triggered in individuals exposed to non-protamine cationic arginine-rich peptides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)957-969
Number of pages13
JournalDrug Safety
Issue number10
Early online date1 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


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