Neuropathic pain is defined as pain caused by dysfunctions of the nervous system or by lesions. Such lesions can be in the peripheral (e.g. diabetic polyneuropathy) or in the central nervous system (e.g. spinal cord injury pain). Neuropathic pain is common, but often undiagnosed and poorly treated. This chapter discusses the treatment of a wide range of neuropathic pain syndromes, including phantom limb pain and post-therapeutic neuralgia.