Neuroendocrine and neurotrophic signaling in Huntington's disease: Implications for pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies

Danielle M. Bartlett, Travis M. Cruickshank, Anthony J. Hannan, Peter R. Eastwood, Alpar S. Lazar, Melanie Ziman

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    17 Citations (Scopus)
    218 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Circadian, sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances are observed in HD as early as 15 years before clinical disease onset. Disturbances in these key processes result in increased cortisol and altered melatonin release which may negatively impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and contribute to documented neuropathological and clinical disease features. This review describes the normal interactions between neurotrophic factors, the HPA-axis and circadian rhythm, as indicated by levels of BDNF, cortisol and melatonin, and the alterations in these intricately balanced networks in HD. We also discuss the implications of these alterations on the neurobiology of HD and the potential to result in hypothalamic, circadian, and sleep pathologies. Measurable alterations in these pathways provide targets that, if treated early, may reduce degeneration of brain structures. We therefore focus here on the means by which multidisciplinary therapy could be utilised as a non-pharmaceutical approach to restore the balance of these pathways.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)444-454
    Number of pages11
    JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
    Volume71
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

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