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Nemaline myopathy (NM), a structural congenital myopathy, presents a significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Here, we compiled molecular and clinical data of 30 Brazilian patients from 25 unrelated families. Next-generation sequencing was able to genetically classify all patients: sixteen families (64%) with mutation in NEB, five (20%) in ACTA1, two (8%) in KLHL40, and one in TPM2 (4%) and TPM3 (4%). In the NEB-related families, 25 different variants, 11 of them novel, were identified; splice site (10/25) and frame shift (9/25) mutations were the most common. Mutation c.24579 G>C was recurrent in three unrelated patients from the same region, suggesting a common ancestor. Clinically, the “typical” form was the more frequent and caused by mutations in the different NM genes. Phenotypic heterogeneity was observed among patients with mutations in the same gene. Respiratory involvement was very common and often out of proportion with limb weakness. Muscle MRI patterns showed variability within the forms and genes, which was related to the severity of the weakness. Considering the high frequency of NEB mutations and the complexity of this gene, NGS tools should be combined with CNV identification, especially in patients with a likely non-identified second mutation.
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